IT defines as Information Technology, IT is consists of study, design, advance development, accomplishment, support or administration of computer foundation information system, mostly software application and computer hardware. Information technology works with the use of electronic computers and computer software to renovate, defend, development, and broadcast and other information.
Information technology has overstuffed to cover many features of computing and technology, and this word is more familiar than ever before. Information technology subject can be quite large, encompassing many fields. IT professionals perform different types of responsibilities that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks. IT professional’s responsibilities are data management, networking, database, software design, computer hardware, management and administration of whole system. IT (Information Technology) is combined word of computer and communications or “InfoTech”. Information Technology illustrates any technology which helps to manufacture, manipulate, accumulate, communicate or broadcast information.
Information Communications Technology (ICT):- ICT term comprises the entire technology for communication of advance information. It includes any intermediate to record information by paper, magnetic disk or tape, pen, optical disks, flash memory, CD/DVD etc. and also ICT technology used for broadcasting information by television, radio, microphone, loudspeaker and cellular phones. Information technology transfer information with the help of satellite system and intercontinental cables. Defiantly IT has developed into a type of a hub for communicating information.
Informative modeling: – it is an interdisciplinary myth for connecting information technologies field with architectural examination and modeling. IM aspires at improving the way evidences and information about architectural objects developed throughout time can be demonstrated. IM applies for studying of historic architecture, and objects been broadly transformed.
Technical support: – it is a range of services which has provided by technology products as mobile cell phone, television and computers or electronic & mechanical gadgets. Technical services attempt to facilitate the user resolve specific problems with the product. Somewhat that offering training, support services and other customization.
Most of the companies recommend technical support on behalf of the products, either they are freely available or for a pay. Technical support can be conveyed by the telephone or with the help of various channels like e-mail or a website. Major organizations having frequently internal technical service available to staff for pc related problems. Also internet is the best place to convey your problem in form of message and it’s freely available for tech support, where many of experienced users may advice and assistance you.
IT – NEW PARADIGM
Information technology introduces new ways of participation by the poor men, women and young people, educated and uneducated knowingly and unknowingly in the global economy in cost-effective and poor-friendly ways, thus creating opportunities to address the issue of poverty reduction. Information technology offers the most exciting possibilities for overcoming paucity. This potential will vastly remain unexplored if left to the market forces. Therefore increasing the need to create a regional mechanism such as an Asian Institute of Information Technology for Poverty Reduction which would help in coordinating the existing information technology based systems and experiments, and developing the grounds for replicating the strategies based on information technology for poverty reduction.
Information technology provides remedy to the problem of poverty simply because it presents mankind with a tool for leveraging information and knowledge at a rate and at a level before now unknown. This has implications for not only individuals and communities but for nations. Information technology can be used to search for and transmit local, regional and global best practices in poverty eradication, enhance participation in governance, give voice to the disenfranchised in the society and facilitate new forms of governance, all of which in turn will serve to enhance a country’s potential to make positive strides in poverty eradication related efforts.
The information technology and IT enabled services sector and its role in country’s economic growth, in terms of its contribution to gross domestic product, exports and employment creation has been steadily increasing. There is a great necessity to find ways and means to improve economic conditions for the betterment of all. Eradication of poverty is not by any means a simple or one step process. It takes a long and tedious process to just find ways to make a small change. Total eradication is a long range plan in which shortness in small goals must be involved.
Information technology is concerned with all forms with tools, techniques and technology applied for transmitting, storing, processing and disseminating information. It refers it any combination of equipments and procedures that facilitate the acquisition, creation, retrieval, storage, searching. Usually, information technology is viewed as a synthesis of developments in the field of computer science and the development in telecommunication technology.
The achievements of the Indian information technology industry so far have been quite noted worthy. This is because of technical skills of Indian Software professional and high quality software development coupled with lowest costs. Indian software companies have acquired a worldwide reputation of providing software solutions with cost and quality advantage.
Information Technology industry has witnessed tremendous growth over the past two decades. The pace of technological development in the information technology market, both at the domestic and international levels have been phenomenal. The employment opportunities are expected to be good in the information technology industry as demand for computer-related occupation increase due to rapid advances in computer technology, continuing development of new computer application and the growing significance of information security.
IT workers must continually update and acquire new skills to remain qualified in this dynamic field. They also must posses’ strong problem-solving and analytical skills as well as excellent communication skills because troubleshooting and helping others are such vital aspect of the job.
A Guide of IT
Information Technology department consisted of a single Computer Operator, who might be storing data on magnetic tape, and then putting it in a box down in the basement somewhere. The history of information technology is fascinating. Information technology is driven by the demands of the new, competitive business environment on the one hand and profound changes in the nature of computers in the other. Information Technology systems come in the shape of many technologically advanced devices which help deliver important information to managers who in turn, use this information to make crucial decision regarding the operations of their organization.
Information Technology can come in the form of computers, robots, sensors, and decision support systems. The newest form of Information Technology which is being implemented on the market today is the use of handhelds to aid managers and subordinates in their day to day operations. Information Technology Auditing (IT auditing) began as Electronic Data Process (EDP) Auditing and developed largely as a result of the rise in technology in accounting systems, the need for IT control and the impact of computers on the ability to perform attestation services.
Information technology (IT) is revolutionizing how business operates. Advanced information technology is becoming the single-most powerful force shaping the structure and functioning of work organizations, plants, offices, and executive suites. When people hear the words “Information Technology,” the first thing that comes to their mind are computers and the Internet. It may also bring up words like “network,” “intranet,” “server,” “firewall,” “security,” as well as more arcane expressions such as “router,” “T-1,” “Ethernet,” or the mysterious and exotic-sounding “VoIP.” the term “information technology” is not new and has not always referred to things relating to computer. Information technology is as old as the brain itself, if you think of the brain as an information processor. As far as IT being a science, even that goes back as far as the earliest attempts to communicate and store information. And that is essentially what information technology is: the communication and storage of information, along with the ability to process and make use of the information stored.
Information technology is the use of computers and software to manage information. In some companies, this is referred to as Management Information Services (or MIS) or simply as Information Services (or IS). The information technology department of a large company would be responsible for storing information, protecting information, processing the information, transmitting the information as necessary, and later retrieving information as necessary. The benefits resulting from Information Technology benefits were in many different forms such as allowing all firms to accomplish tasks they had been doing before at reduced costs, it opened up possibilities to do things never attempted before, also allowed firms to “re-engineer” parts of their companies and make better strategic positions.
Information Technology Something New?
When people hear the words “Information Technology,” the first things that come to mind are computers and the Internet. It may also bring up words like “network,” “intranet,” “server,” “firewall,” “security,” as well as more arcane expressions such as “router,” “T-1,” “Ethernet,” or the mysterious and exotic-sounding “VoIP” (pronounced “voyp”).
In fact, information technology is all of these things, and more. It’s hardly new, however. Information technology is as old as the brain itself, if you think of the brain as an information processor. As far as I.T. being a science, even that goes back as far as the earliest attempts to communicate and store information.
And that is essentially what information technology is: the communication and storage of information, along with the ability to process and make use of the information stored. In this chapter, we’ll begin with a brief history of I.T., what it comprises today, and the different major types of I.T. systems available today.
A Short History of Information Technology
As human societies have grown in size and complexity, so has the need to collect, store and transmit information. While it could be argued that brains represent a form of “bio-information technology,” Greek word “Tektra” – from which we get the word “technology” – really refers to scientific or mechanical knowledge, particularly that which involves the use of tools. Therefore, we’ll begin our journey with humans first attempts to record and transmit knowledge through mechanical means.
The Neolithic Period and the Bronze Age
We might not have thought of it as “information technology” several thousand years ago when we as a species were painting animals on cave walls. But in fact that may be exactly what it was.
Using a combination of tools that included manganese “crayons” and clay that was colored with various pigments, early humans left these images on the walls of a cave near Lascaux, France and on cliffs in the Algerian Sahara.
These have been dated as being approximately 18,000 and 8,000 years old respectively. Unfortunately, there is no way to be certain exactly what message was being communicated (a problem our own descendants 15,000 years from now may very well encounter from what we leave behind!)
Since the images depict animals that were commonly hunted at the time, and given the importance of game animals to a hunting-gathering culture, it’s possible that such images were attempts to present information about such game, or part of a rite designed to ensure a successful hunt.
The invention of writing systems – including pictograms such as hieroglyphics, alphabetic writing and “syllabic” systems – seems to have taken place almost at the same time as the development of agriculture. Agriculture introduced such formerly unknown concepts as land ownership, advanced trade and the accumulation of wealth, which in turn led to more complex societal structures.
As you might expect, this necessitated more detailed and efficient record-keeping. Alphabetic writing has a substantial advantage over pictograms (hieroglyphs), because a relatively limited number of symbols (letters) can be used over and over in infinite combination to communicate nearly anything. (As you will see later, modern I.T. uses only two of these symbols!)
Preserving and storing such information posed certain challenges; information either had to be inscribed on stone or clay tablets (which were heavy) or animal skins, wax tablets or papyrus (which weren’t durable).
The Hellenistic World
The Classical Greeks were the first people of record to attempt to find scientific, rational explanations for natural phenomena. Some of the earliest proto-computers known were mechanical devices developed by the Greeks. One of these was a form of abacus (which also developed and was used in ancient China). The device facilitated and simplified mathematical calculation.
Consider REALLY early Greco-Roman Abacus
Another early computational device was the antikthera, greek in origin. An antikthera was discovered by a Greek sponge diver over a century ago, it was only recently that this 2100-year-old device was reconstructed and shown to be an early form of computer designed to chart the movements of the sun, moon and five planets known at the time.
Early Programmable Devices
By the time the gradual break-up and fall of the Roman Empire was complete in the year 476 C.E., scientific and technological advances in the Western world had ground to a halt. While much of the scientific knowledge of the Greeks was preserved by Irish monks and Arab scholars, it wasn’t until the fourteenth century that principles of engineering were rediscovered and applied to information. The first of these was of course the printing press.
Although the concept of movable type printing had been developed in China some four hundred years earlier, it was Gutenberg’s device in 1447 that revolutionized communications, making it easier and faster to record and disseminate information than ever before. The first truly programmable device would not come along for another 354 years, however.
The Jacquard Loom of 1801 was a product of the Industrial Revolution. This invention used a series of specially punched paper cards that functional as templates, allowing for the automatic weaving of highly intricate patterns. Those punch cards became very significant to computing in the 1950’s, 60’s and 70’s.
The next development was Charles Babbage’s “Analytical Machine” – a fully-programmable computer that unfortunately was never actually built. Babbage worked on designs from 1837 until his passing in 1871. This steam-powered mechanism would have also utilized punch cards, with a central processing unit (CPU) and a form of memory storage in the form of a system of pegs inserted into rotating barrels.
The Analytical Machine would have been capable of storing 1,000 numbers of up to fifty digits each, and perform six different mathematical operations, including the calculation of square roots. Babbage’s ideas were incorporated into early electronic computing devices being developed in the late 1930’s and 1940’s, although not all of these were actually programmable. The first truly programmable computers – able to store and use information – did not come into common use until the 1950’s, and yes – made use of punch cards (those born before 1965 may remember playing with them).
Of course most people born in the 70’s, 80’s and 90’s just take for granted that the Information Technology we have today is from fairley recent developments in science, mechanics and electronics. But we know different now don’t we. And therefore can better appreciate what we have available to us now.